It involves drilling a hole in the skull of a living person to cure illness such as convulsions, headaches, infections or fractures.
The skulls found in Peru show evidence that sections of the cranium were removed using a hand drill or a scraping tool.
It is still unknown what anesthetic, if any, was used to dull the pain during the surgery. The ancient doctor or doctors who performed the surgeries did them at a location on the skull that minimized damage to the brain and assured longer survival.
The researchers believe the surgeries were carried out using the same principles as those found in the Hippocratic Corpus, which requires strict adherence to medical ethics and techniques. Remarkably, it appears one of the men lived for years after the trepanation surgery because some of the bone grew back.
One of these was a lunar calendar, which was used mainly for the organization of religious festivals.
The farmstead of General Jan Smuts on the outskirts of Pretoria, is reputed to be one of the most haunted private homes in the country, according to Mr Mark Rose-Christie, raconteur and social scientist, who regularly takes brave visitors on a tour of haunted sites on his mystery ghost bus.
Throughout history, women have always been healers.
The calendar, or rather, two sets of calendars, were invented by the ancient Egyptians.
The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective. Excavation team member and forensic science expert Ömer Turan sasid: “The skull of this person, who is over the age of 30, was cut very regularly by medical workers, just like today’s brain surgeons. A person cannot tolerate this pain and should be anaesthetized, so this type of operation in such an early era makes us think there was a kind of anesthesia.
Biological studies on the bones will enable us to find out which substance was used.
Plastic surgery, not just a modern practice, has always existed and was shrouded in mystery, magic, and eroticism.
An Indian physician named Sushruta, who was widely regarded in India as the “father...