Some designs, such as the Lily Pad, run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions.Arduino microcontrollers are pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory.In 2003, Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis, another IDII student, and David Cuartielles, added support for the cheaper ATmega8 microcontroller to Wiring.But instead of continuing the work on Wiring, they forked the project and renamed it Arduino.At that time, the students used a BASIC Stamp microcontroller at a cost of 0, a considerable expense for many students.In 2003 Hernando Barragán created the development platform Wiring as a Master's thesis project at IDII, under the supervision of Massimo Banzi and Casey Reas, who are known for work on the Processing language.The project goal was to create simple, low cost tools for creating digital projects by non-engineers.The Wiring platform consisted of a printed circuit board (PCB) with an ATmega168 microcontroller, an IDE based on Processing and library functions to easily program the microcontroller.
The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers.
Nevertheless, an official Bill of Materials of Arduino boards has never been released by Arduino staff.
Although the hardware and software designs are freely available under copyleft licenses, the developers have requested the name Arduino to be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derived works without permission.
In October 2017, Arduino announced its partnership with ARM Holdings (ARM).
The announcement said, in part, "ARM recognized independence as a core value of Arduino ...